Bounded-Body / Bounded Art-Objects : The Inter-relational Dynamics of Performance-premised Engagements
1.4 Section 1 Notes.
1 For example: The potential for memory associations, temporal displacements, sensual affectivity, emotional arousal, and an invigoration of interpersonal relations are among these less tangible intentions.
2 The Fourth Wall is commonly described as a barrier which distances the performers from audience members, promoting a suspension of disbelief for the illusionary purpose of manifesting ‘a world within a world’. Practitioner’s repeatedly note that this elicits predominately emotive journeying among audience members. The wall is said to be fortified by the existence of a proscenium arch (framing the staging area), or spatially designating a seating area as distinct from the playing area, and by employing performance techniques that avoid direct address or contact with the audience. Therefore ‘breaking through’ the wall is associated to confronting or interacting with the audience, which reportedly encourages further intellectual awareness of one’s own emotional reactions, among audience members. French philosopher, art critic, and sometimes theatre director Denis Diderot (1713-1784) is credited with establishing discourse related to the technical construction and parameters of “The Fourth Wall”. See: Peter France, Public Theatre and Private Theatre in the Writings of Diderot. The Modern Language Review, 64, no. 3 (July 1969): 522-528. For a well-known twentieth century reference, see: Bertolt Brecht, Brecht on Theatre: 1918-1932 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1966).
3 I add this as a performance practitioner whose career trajectory included immersion in the realm of Physical Theatre, where this particular analogy is regularly made.
4 That, for example, the existence an imaginary wall would so consistently arouse a predominately emotive participation, as opposed to an emphasis upon associative interpretation or visceral experience.
5 My principal source for this phrase remains in a notebook that is currently displaced. However, the ethereality of staged performance has been found in a number of sources. For example see Chapter 3 in: Carolyn Guertin, Quantum Feminist Mnemotechnics: the archival text, digital narrative, and the limits of memory (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003). http://www.mcluhan.utoronto.ca/academy/ carolynguertin/diss.html.
6 Phillip B. Zarrilli et al, Theatre Histories; An Introduction; Part 1 (New York: Routeledge, 2006), 44-45; Peter Brook, The Empty Space. (New York: Atheneum Publishers, 1968), 129. Brook also makes note of the ephemeral phenomena experienced by performers (Brook, The Empty Space, 129).
7 Alterity, or the experience of an ‘otherness’, may occur imaginatively, perceptually, emotionally, corporeally, or in context with social relations.
8 Rebecca Schneider, The Explicit Body in Performance (London; New York: Routeledge, 1997), 147.
9 A toward-belief disposition is regularly demonstrated through the examples and qualifying statements made by authors among the references cited in section “2.5 The Performative” of this document. Also see: Zarrilli et al, Theatre Histories, 1-48.
10 Artist’s structural composition can be the result of environmental dressings and spatial framings, playing area or scenographic design work, the manner of use for costuming or props, employment of technological or performance techniques, etc.
11 Thus far these two Modes (Ethereal and Ephemeral) only describe what is mutual about certain engagements. For example, engagement with both a sculptural or cinematic works may take place within an Ethereal Mode Of Engagement, but what is distinctive about these experiences? Though both appear to fall within the parameters of an Ephemeral Mode of Engagement, what differs in our experience of a walking tour as compared to a ritual event?
12 Several sources have referred to performance presentations as art-objects: Peter Brook, The Empty Space. (New York: Atheneum Publishers, 1968), 5 and 91 and 127; Jacques Derrida and A. Bass, “The Theatre of Cruelty and the Closure of Representation.” Writing and Difference (, Chicago, London and Henley: The University of Chicago Press, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1978), 15; Iain Thompson, Heidegger’s Aesthetics:1.1 Heidegger’s Understanding of the True Work of Art,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/heidegger-aesthetics/>; I. Thomson, “The Silence of the Limbs: Critiquing Culture from a Heideggerian Understanding of the Work of Art” Enculturation 2, no. 1 (1998).
13 See section “2.2 Object Relations Theory” of this document.
14 As discussed throughout this book: Michael St.Clair (1996), Object Relations and Self-Psychology: An Introduction (Belmont: Brooks/Cole), 226.
15 See section “2.1 Phenomenology” of this document.
16 In particular see: Georges Bataille, Visions of Excess: Selected Writings 1927-1939 (University of Minnesota Press, 1985). Also see section “2.5 The Performative” of this document.
17 See section “2.3 The Bounded-Body” of this document. Also see: Phillip B. Zarrilli et al, Theatre Histories, 91.
18 See section “2.2 Object Relations Theory.” of this document. Also see: Giancarlo Dimaggio (MD), Antonio Semerari (MD), and Antonino Carcione et al, “Toward a Model of Self Pathology Underlying Personality Disorders: Narratives, Metacognition, Interpersonal Cycles and Decision-making Processes” Journal of Personality Disorders 20, no. 6 (2006): 597– 617; Giancarlo Dimaggio, Nicolò, Giuseppe, and Fiore, Donatella et al, “States of minds in narcissistic personality disorder: Three psychotherapies analyzed using the grid of problematic states” Psychotherapy Research 18, no. 4 (2008): 466-480; Paul Wink, “Two Faces of Narcissism” Berkeley Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Institute of Personality Assessment and Research University of California 61, no. 4 (1991): 590-597.
19 Physical Theatre is a broad classification of alternative performance approaches (set in contrast with Modernist theatre conventions) that envelopes an array of performance genres. These practices are often multi-disciplinary in character and usually prefer the devising of content over use of pre-existing scripts (dance-theatre, interpretative black-box works, public space interventions, puppetry, and variants of commedia dell’arte, for example).
2.6 Section II Notes.
1 This issue is discussed at length in: Martin Heidegger, Being and Time (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1953).
2 This word is capitalized in order to distinguish it as a temporal experience as opposed to ‘a being’ or creature. 3 These terms are introduced and expanded upon throughout: Martin Heidegger, Being and Time, 467; Iain Thompson, “Heidegger’s Aesthetics,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/heidegger-aesthetics/>.
4 In particular, my principal source surveyed significant contributions to the field made by W.R.D. Fairbairn
(1889-1964), Edith Jacobson (1897-1978), Otto Kernberg (1928-2011), Melanie Klein (1882-1960), Heinz Kohut (1913-1981), Margaret S. Mahler (1897-1985), and D. W. Winnicott (1896-1971). See: Michael St. Clair, Object Relations and Self-Psychology: An Introduction, Second Edition (Belmont: Brooks/Cole, 1996).
5 See Chapter Five, “D. W. Winnicott: Pediatrician with a Unique Perspective” in the book: St. Clair, Object Relations and Self-Psychology, 71-90.
7 In particular, see: Kirsten Jacobson, “Agoraphobia and Hypochondria as Disorders of Dwelling” International
Studies in Philosophy 36, 2 (2004): 31-44; John Sadler (MD), “Introduction to the Special Section: Philosophy And Personality Disorders” Journal of Personality Disorders, The Guilford Press 20, no. 2 (2006): 113–115.
8 Mary Douglas, “External Boundaries” Purity and danger : an analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo (New York: Praeger, 1966), 115 and 122.
9 Exemplifying details can be found in her discussion of the Hindu Goorgs (Srinivas) in India: Douglas, “External Boundaries,” 123-128.
10 Rebecca Schneider, The Explicit Body in Performance (London; New York: Routledge, 1997). 11 Ibid., 141. 12 Ibid., 131; Douglas, “External Boundaries,” 118. 13 Rebecca Schneider, The Explicit Body in Performance, 138.
14 Ibid., 146.
15 Ibid., 140.
16 Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guatarri further explore Artaud’s radio script reference to ‘a body without organs’ in: Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guttari, “November 28, 1947: How do you make yourself a body without organs?” A Thousand Plateaus (London: Continuum Books, 1987). It is notable also that Artaud generally referred to the body in derogatory context, and to bodily limitations as if representing a profound inhibitor of human potential.
17 Artaud’s manifestos are well known and spoke of among artists across disciplines, both are accounted for among a collection of his writings: Antonin Artaud, The Theatre and Its Double (New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1958). I have also seen his name referenced by scholarly theorists in context with Communications, Media Studies, Psychology, Performance Studies, and Philosophy.
18 Jacques Derrida and A. Bass, “The Theatre of Cruelty and the Closure of Representation” in Writing and Difference (Chicago, London and Henley: The University of Chicago Press, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1978), 233 and 249. 19 Peter Brook, The Empty Space (New York: Atheneum Publishers, 1968), 53-57.
20 Ibid., 55.
21 See: Roy Connolly and Richard Ralley, “Brecht and the disembodied actor“ Studies in Theatre and Performance, Intellect Ltd Article 28, 2 (2008): 91-110.
22 Brecht’s distain for the emotional evocations attributed to existence of The Fourth Wall is evident in his view of it as a mechanism of ‘forced empathy’: Bertolt Brecht, Brecht on Theatre: 1918-1932 (Frankfurtam: Main,1966), 170-171.
23 Judith Butler, “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay” in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory,” Performing Feminisms: Feminist Critical Theory and Theatre, (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1988).
24 Ibid., 145.
26 Ibid., 155.
27 Michel de Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1984), 94.
28 Ibid., 122.
29 Ibid., 129.
30 J.L. Austen, How To Do Things With Words (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1975),
15-6 and 46-47.
31 Austen’s reference to Verdictives (an exercise in judgment), Exercitives (an asserting influence or power), Commissives (assuming of an obligation, declaration, or intention), Behavitives (adopting of an attitude), and Expositives (clarifying of reasons, arguments, communications) may also serve as means of investigating distinctions in performative processes and qualities across disciplines. Peggy Phelan ventures into this territory, briefly, in “Chapter 7: The Ontology of Performance: Representation Without Reproduction” in: Peggy Phelan, Unmarked: The Politics of Performance (London: Routledge, 1993 / 1996).
32 These are but fleeting notations, and not the focal topic. See for example see pages 8, 73, 74, 81, 119: Austen, How To Do Things With Words.
33 Phillip B. Zarrilli et al, Theatre Histories; An Introduction; Part 1 (New York: Routeledge, 2006), 19. 34 Derrida and Bass, “The Theatre of Cruelty and the Closure of Representation,” 239.
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